Grand Cosmic and Natural History

Feb 13 2023 · LastMod: Feb 15 2023

[Under Construction]

Cosmic History

  1. Big Bang
    • Planck epoch ($< 10^{43}s$)
    • GUT ($10^{-43} \sim 10^{-36}s$)
  2. Radiation dominated
    • Electroweak ($10^{-36}\sim 10^{-12}s$), during which, inflation ($\sim 10^{-32}s$) ends
    • Quark ($10^{-12}\sim 10^{-5}s$), during which, Baryongenesis ($10^{-11}s$).
    • Hadron ($10^{-5}\sim 1s$), ending with Neutrino decoupling.
    • Lepton ($1\sim 10s$)
    • Photon ($10s \sim 370 ka$), during which, Big Bang nucleosynthesis ($180 \sim 10^3 s$) and Recombination ($10\sim 370 ka$)
  3. Matter-dominated ($47ka\sim 9.8Ga$)
    • Dark ages ($370ka \sim 150 Ma$)
    • Star, Galaxy formation and evolution (earliest circa $300\sim 400 Ma$, modern $1 \sim 10 Ga$); during which, Reionization ($200 Ma\sim 1 Ga$)
  4. Dark-energy-dominated ($>9.8 Ga$), acceleration.
    • Present time is $13.8 Ga$.

From Big Bang to Recombination, see The Early Universe

Reference Used

We are not doing theory or practicing exact science here, so standard textbooks will be sufficient,

Geological History and Paleontology

Preliminary remarks.

An interactive version of chronostratigraphic chart is maintain by ICS. Here the point will be on the major events together with associated theories and their reference, with time scale refined to stage/age, similar to what is provided in wikipedia.

Chronostratigraphic/geographic units are classified, from largest to smallest, by

  1. Eonothem-Eon: Spanning several hundred milions ($\gtrsim 10^8$) of years.
  2. Erathem-Era: Tens to hundreds hundred milions ($10^7 \sim 10^8$) of years.
  3. System-Period: Millions of or tens of millions ($10^6\sim 10^7$) of years.
  4. Series-Epoch: Hundred of thousands of years to tens of millions ($10^4\sim 10^7$) of years.
  5. Subseries-subepoch: Thousands of years to millions ($10^3\sim 10^6$) of years.
  6. Stage-age: Thousands of years to millions ($10^3\sim 10^6$) of years.

Meaning of affixes:

Roughly charted geological history (to Periods)

  1. Hadean Eon (4.6-4 Ga) Planet and moon formation; bombardment; ocean formation and carbon dioxide atmosphere.
  2. Archean Eon (4-2.5 Ga) Earlist uncontroversial living organisms (protocells, prokayotes). Age of plate tectonics (formation stabilization of most modern cratons).
    1. Eoarchean Era (4-3.6 Ga)
    2. Paleoarchean Era (3.6-3.2 Ga)
    3. Mesoarchean Era (3.2-2.8 Ga)
    4. Neoarchean Era (2.8-2.5 Ga)
  3. Proterozoic Eon (2.5 Ga - 539 Ma) Increased oxidation. Eukaryotes. Algae. First animals.
    1. Paleoproterozoic Era (2.5-1.6 Ga)
    2. Mesoproterozoic Era (1.6-1 Ga)
    3. Neoproterozoic Era (1 Ga - 539 Ma)
  4. Phanerozoic Eon (539 Ma - Present) Starting with Major diversification of life and appearance of most of the animal phyla.
    1. Paleozoic Era (539-252 Ma)
      1. Cambrian Period (539-485 Ma)
      2. Ordovician Period (485-419 Ma)
      3. Silurian Period (444-419 Ma)
      4. Devonian Period (419-359 Ma)
      5. Carboniferous Period (359-299 Ma)
      6. Permian Period (299-252 Ma)
    2. Mesozoic Era (252-66.0 Ma)
      1. Triassic Period (252-201 Ma)
      2. Jurassic Period (201-145)
      3. Cretaceous Period (145-66.0 Ma)
    3. Cenozoic Era (66.Ma -Present)
      1. Paleogene Period (66.0-23.0 Ma)
      2. Neogene Period (23.0-2.58 Ma)
      3. Quaternary Period (2.59 Ma - Present)

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